Science and Human Life ielts reading answer

Science and Human Life IELTS reading answer

Science and Human Life ielts reading answer
Science and Human Life ielts reading answer

be Science and the techniques to which it has given rise have changed human life during the
hundred and fifty years more than it had been changed since men (sic) took to agriculture
the changes that are being wrought by science continue at an increasing speed, There is n P
of any new stability to be attended on some scientific plateau. On the contrary, there is every
reason to think that the.revolutionary possibilities of. science exter3 immeasurably beyond
has so far been realized. Can the human race adjust itself quickly enough to these vertiginous
transformations, or will it, as innumerable former species have done, perish from lack of
adaptability? The dinosaurs were, in their day, the lords of creation, and if there had been
philosophers among them, not one would have foreseen that the whole race might perish.
But they became extinct because they could not adapt themselves to a world without war
In the case of man and science, there Is a wholly new factor, namely, tnat man himself is crea
the changes of environment to which he wil nave to adjust himself with unprecedented rago
But, although man through his scientific skill is the cause of the changes of environment, mos
of these changes are not willed. by human beings.
Although they come about through human agencies, the nave. or at en rate have had sc la
Something of the inexorable inevitability of natural forces. ivneiner avatar Jried uo the swang
O! men deliberately drained them makes itie difference as regards the ultimate coult. Wynette
be able to survive the changes of environment in their own skin has brought. abou
iş an open question, If ine answer is in the affirmative, men witi have to apply scientific ways o
thinking to themselves and their institutions.
One of the most obvious problems raised bye Scientific (the technique is that of the exhaustion of
the soil and of raw materials. This subject has cean much discussed and some govéinments
have actually taken some steps to prevent the denudation of the soil, But I doubt fresher, as
vet, the good done by these measures I6 outweighing the harm done in less careful regions.
Fo xd, however, is such an obvious necessity thát trhế pr5blem is bound to receiva increasing
attention as population pressure makes it more urgent. Whether this increased attention
will do gaod or harm, in the long run, is, I fear, questionable. By a spendthrift use of fertilisers.
food production in the present can be increased at the cost of fad production in the future.

The question of raw.materials is more difficult and complex than the question. of food. The
raw materials required at one stage of the technique are different from those required at another.
It may be that by the time the world's supply of uilis exhausted, atomic power will have taken
is place) But to this sort of process there is alimi, though not art easily assignable one, At
present there is a race for uranium, and it would seem likely that before very long there will
be no easily accessible source of uranium. If, when that happens, the world has come to
depend upon nuclear energy as its main source of power, the result may be devastating. All
such speculations are of course very questionable, since new techniques may always make it
possible to dispense with formerly necessary raw materials. But we cannot get away from the
broad fact that we are living úpon the world's capital of stored energy and are transforming the
energy at a continually increasing rate into forms in which it cannot be utilised. Such a manner
of ife can hardly be stable, but must sooner or later bring the penalty that lies in wait for those
who live-on capital.
The problem which most preoccupies the public mind at the present moment is that of scientific
warfare. It has become evident that, if scientific skill is allowed free scope, the human race will
be exterminated, if not in the next war, then in the next but one or the next but two - at any
rate at no very distant date. To this problem there are two possible reactions: there are those
who say, 'Let us create social institutions which wil make large-scale war impossible'; there are
others who say, 'Let us not allow war to become too scientific. We cannot perhaps go back
to bows and arrows, but let us at any ráte agree with our enemies that, if we fight them, both
sides will fight inefficiently.' For my part) I tàvour the former answer, sinceI cannot see that
either side could be expected to observe an agreement not to use modern weapons once the war
had broken out. It is on this erpuno that I do. not think that there will long continue to be human
beings unless methods are found of permanently preventing large-scale wars. I shall return to it
Apart from the more general duties o1 scientists tówards society, they have a quite special
And exceptional ouly in the present critical condition of the world. All men of science who
have studied thermonuclear warfare are aware of two superlatively important facts: first,
thet whatever agreements may have been reached to the contrary, thermonuclear weapons
vill certainly be employed by both sides in a world war. Second, that if such weapons are
employed there can be no hope of victory for either side, but only of universal construction
invoiving, quite possibly, the end of all human and animal life and almost certainly, failing that, a complete reversion to barbarism.

Capitalism IELTS Reading Answer

passage 2

Capitalism is the system under which we all live, which is failing so miserably to meet the needs of the vast majority of the World's population. Under Capitalism, a small minority of péople are in
control of the money and resources of the planet
They accumulate wealth and power and move their money and factors around a
keep their profits high and wages low. The profit comes before people and the environment
We are forced to compete with each other to work for low wages In order to buy ne,
and as a result of the bosses and shareholders of the companies we work lor and buy from
and con
profits for themselves.
We work long hours with little say over our pay and conditions, no security,, no.con
over what we are producing and why, or what happens to the profits. We have to trya
accumulate money, because there is no security in our communities for when we are
old or out of work.
Most work is useless and tedious, making unnecessary new products and services v
waste resources and generate pollution. They are usually products which are Lhalfordable
most of the world's population, which means we have to work harder to afford them.
Bosses, owners and shareholders have control over industry, factories, machinery
and profits. Last year the directors of Britain's top 1000 companies earned
over 20 times the average salary of their'employees and the gap is increasing every year Fook a
meanwhile, according to UN figures, one in five children in Britain live in familięs below the write t
official poverty line.
and flor
This is
on average
The established unions have played a role in protecting and promoting workers' rights in
some circumstances, but they do not challenge the true injustice, the idea that it is OK for th:15. VA
few to make the decisions, own the factory and keep the profits.
By acting as intermediaries between the worliorce and the bosses, the big established
unions simply make the whole system run ino e smoothly.
If we try and survive outside this system, we end up poor, homeless, in prison. Under
capitalism, money, background, education, and class determine how much freedom and
control people have in thei lives.
If you are poor, working-class, black, female. foreign you are likely to have wo. education
and jub opportunities, worse housing conditions, poorer health care provision, you are more
Ikely to go to person, and for longer temis, and you will die carlicr, than those who como iom
wealthier more privileged backgrounds.
All oyer the worlä people are being forced frorn their lands so oil, timber and mining
companies cari move in. robbed of their lana, ruptures and communities, they have no choice
hiu labour for the profit of the glabal corporation's ist to survive, andi to Buy necessities
Which they wauld once have been able to gow or make toh themselves
The wealth of many industrialised countries nlas olten come from exploiting the resources,
labour and people of the third world), :om historical slavery to the Nike sweatshops of today
What resources many of these counties possess they must use to pay interest on their
debts to the World Bank and Western counti., no heir health and education systems
16. w
17. o

18. i
Is this a just way to run society, where siman number of people live in luxury while most ci
us have little contact! cver our lives and niore arne i.o live in poverty and hungar>
Some people say (hat capitalism is basad on human nature, and is, therefore, the best way
to run thing: But this isn't true. Humen nature anes from human to hian, and we are all

Controlling the Car of the Future reading answer

Passage 3

The car is not what it used to be. Styling, safety and performance have undergone radical roug
changes and improvements in the last-40O years. Drivers from the 1960s, perhaps a Ford
Anglia owner would recognise that a BMW Series 5 was a car, but that is about as far as
understanding would go.
What would such a person make of air-bags, navigation, cruise control and rear-seaut
entertainment? The evolution which has led to these features is unlikely to slow down
soon. In fact, in certain ereas it may bc about to accelerate.
Che of the areas which is going to exhibit rapid and radical evolution is the car interior, in
particular the interfaces between the car systems and the occupants. The interior sy temsa
evolving as te Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMS) react to a number of factors ac
on the tasic idea of the car itself
These factors arise out of A number of external and internal influences he later being broug
in by the automotive industry iself:
economics -- cars need to be cheaper to produce and rich in features to sell wei
energy issues-energy effocy in the design and Separation of cars is now a kev seiling
point for the industry
consumer connectivity om within cars) -- these are being set by the mobile device mar
no ne automotive industry
safety concerns - Governnients and1iSurers are maKing increasing demands to reduce
e and mortality rates associated with:ad use

congestion in the cities - city authorțies require that road traffic is managed, potentielly
actively and intrusively, to allow c ties to carry on functioning
market types - non-Western rarkets and associated cultures such as those in China and
India are oeconing the major target for growth in car sales.
For car occuparits, the first and the most visible impact of the influences described above will
be the way information is presenten ana how the Human-Machine Interaction My occurs. As
a result of changing market pnd consurmer demands, a umber of new features and systems
to deliver them, will appear in the car interior in the next decade.
Sorme of the feetures we will begin to see wl include increasing connectivity 1o infrastructure
to support security, traflic management and intotainVment. As a result: commercial services for
insurance, car maintenance and even advertising wil appear in gur cars. Inecar media systems
wiltoffer multiple web anc/or media strearns lo difierent parts of the car. Mecia will be availabie
for piayback in the car from mobile cevices, in-car med a support or trom corinectivity.
We should also expect to see systems in olace to imposé or 6oach eco-driving as standard.
in the case of electric cars, this will range from systems for locating, scheouling and booking acpess,
through to charging infrastructure. Such systems máy nclude intéligent and connecteci agents which
propose alternative modes of transport as a better way to travel under difficult traffic conditionis.
But with such evolutions comes a major challenge. As more information is brought into the
car, with more diversity of style, priority aro irgency, interfacing to these teaturos within the
constraints of tne vehicle will require new and inrowative methods of interaction, and a new set
of paradigms for the design of in-car HMI.
The challenge here has mutiale facets. Firstly, much of the information being presented
is relevant to the ciriver who is pocupied with a critical task, that of safely operating the cai.
Secoridly, the safety constrente
not acceptable t So or a keyboard can move freely in spsce as the result of a rapid
deceleration, during
cultura localisation in a manner which is economically viable; the basic design paradigm should
vehicle ciesign preclude certain styles of technology; it is
accident for example. Thirdly, any design approach has to support
be cheaply Customisable for Delhi and London alike.
9 All of these evolutions are just the beginning of another round of char:ge to the car as we know
iWe may even see changes to the driving controls themselves: joysticks and fly-by-wire could
Soon meke their appearance. Like the iS00s Ford Anglia owner, the BMW Series 5 owner of
Roday will look at cars of 2020 and wonder where the ignition kay is,

Science and Human Life IELTS reading answer

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. D
  5. D
  6. YES
  7. NO
  14. D
  15. A
  16. G
  17. F
  18. B
  27. VI
  28. I
  29. VIII
  30. III
  31. V
  32. VII

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